Android’s evolution by the years #Toronto #Montreal #Calgary #Ottawa #Canada


Now that we have had our first hands-on with Google’s Android P beta let’s have a look again at how Google’s Android has developed over time. You could not consider it, wanting on the dimension of your scroll indicator, however we did our greatest to make this transient!

Introduction to Android

Android relies on a modified Linux kernel which was initially developed by Android Inc., an organization co-founded by Andy Rubin in October 2003, and bought by Google in 2005 for circa $50 million.

Google launched its Beta cell phone working system, Android, on the 5 November 2007, the identical 12 months Apple launched the iPhone, with Google releasing its first SDK one week later, on 12 November 2007.

Did you already know? When Google launched Android, Eric Schmidt (Google’s then CEO) was a member of Apple’s Board of Directors, a place he had held since August 2006. At the time of its launch, the iPhone utilized Google’s backend providers constructed into a few of Apple’s core iPhone apps, reminiscent of Maps and YouTube.

It wasn’t till August 3, 2009, that he resigned from Apple’s Board of Directors because of the apparent potential conflicts of curiosity. Before his resignation, his effectiveness as an Apple Board member was considerably diminished, typically having to recuse himself from Board conferences when the subject material turned to iPhone or its fledgling operation system – iOS.

During the early levels of its accelerated growth, Android had a really aggressive launch schedule. We typically noticed a number of releases per 12 months, and at its peak in 2009 Android obtained no-less than 4 important updates. More lately, Google has settled into yearly main updates.

In 2011, Android turned the world’s hottest cell Operating System – a mantle that it has not relinquished since – and is unlikely to take action as growing a contemporary OS for any platform is a serious enterprise. As of April 2018, Android had a market share of 75.66%, with iOS holding 19.23%. The 5.11% for ‘different’ combines the likes of Windows, Series 40, Samsung, and Blackberry. Taking tablets under consideration, iOS solely closes the divide by 2-3%.

Licensing and Google Mobile Services

Not all units operating Android are equal although. Once Google launches an Android launch, it makes the supply code out there by way of an open supply license permitting for distribution and modification. However, to make use of the Android trademark, system producers should license this individually from Google.

Additionally, the Android OS does not embody that many core apps. Those apps that we take as a right such because the Play Store, Chrome, Gmail, Maps and the API’s that entry Google’s providers are a part of Google’s Mobile Services, which must be licensed individually from Google. Google will solely grant licenses to manufactures that meet its strict compatibility necessities together with different standards.

This explains why Amazon’s Fire tablets, which run a ‘forked’ model of Android, do not make any reference to Android – as a substitute selecting to name its working System Fire OS. Similarly, Amazon does not license Google Mobile Services and offers its personal browser known as ‘silk,’ Amazon app retailer and different supporting apps that entry Amazon’s eco-system.

As acknowledged beforehand, the open supply license permits modification, enabling system producers to offer a degree of differentiation within the sea of Android units each by ‘skinning’ the inventory Android expertise and/or enhancing different Android options. Samsung with its Samsung Experience, Huawei and its EMUI are two examples of producers who take this strategy. Others, reminiscent of Motorola and Nokia choose a ‘lighter’ contact offering a close to inventory Android. This generally is a contentious topic which warranted our personal Sunday debate earlier within the 12 months which you’ll be able to learn right here. Of curiosity, 65% of voters most well-liked inventory android.

Version historical past

Jump to
Android 1.0 (no codename)
Android 1.1 (Petit Four)
Android 1.5 (Cupcake)
Android 1.6 (Donut)
Android 2.0 (Eclair)
Android 2.2 (Froyo)
Android 2.3 (Gingerbread)
Android 3.0 (Honeycomb)
Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich)
Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean)
Android 4.4 (KitKat)
Android 5.0 (Lollipop)
Android 6.0 (Marshmallow)
Android 7.0 (Nougat)
Android 8.0 (Oreo)
Android 9.0 (Android P title TBC)

Android 1.0 – no codename

Release date: September 23, 2008

Android 1.Zero was the primary commercially out there launch of the OS. It was out there on the pioneering system – the T-Mobile G1 (launched October 2008 within the US and the UK) together with the Android supply code.

Inbuilt apps included:

  • Android Market • Web Browser • Pictures • Camera
  • Gmail • Google Contacts • Google Calendar • Over the air syncing by way of Google Sync
  • Email app supporting POP3, IMAP & SMTP • Calculator • YouTube • Settings
  • Alarm clock • Dialer • Google Maps

During our overview of the T-Mobile G1 we did a deep dive into this primary iteration of Android which you’ll be able to learn right here. We’ve drawn out the salient factors for you:

  • Multiple residence screens
  • Background wallpapers
  • Task switcher
  • Home display folders
  • Pattern unlock
  • Access to current notifications
  • Home display brief cuts, together with contacts
  • No pre-installed video participant
  • Limited digital camera settings
  • Web browser primarily based on WebPackage however lacked multi-touch assist for zooming
  • No video recording capabilities
  • Launched with Android Market

T-Mobile G1
T-Mobile G1
T-Mobile G1
T-Mobile G1
T-Mobile G1

T-Mobile G1 • The Android homescreen • Search • context menu • Android Market

In our preliminary Android overview we concluded

It could also be a protracted journey however step one is daring sufficient. Instead of attempting to develop on an already current platform Google determined to construct a brand new one from scratch and the trouble is nicely price it.

For much more nostalgia, here is the video that Google made out there on the time offering a take a look at Android.


Android 1.1 – Google inner codename was Petit Four

Release date: February 9, 2009

Google had but to show the general public to its dessert impressed launch names for Android nevertheless it was identified internally as ‘Petit Four’.

Android model 1.1 was a comparatively small replace that was launched coinciding with the launch of the HTC Dream, an internationally out there model of the T-Mobile G1.

Notable Android Petit Four options included:

  • Details and evaluations out there when looking companies on Maps
  • Longer in-call display timeout when utilizing the speakerphone, capability to point out/disguise the dialpad
  • Attachments in messages
  • Support added for marquee in system layouts


Android 1.5 – Cupcake

Release date: April 27, 2009

Cupcake was the primary Android launch to have a candy public-facing title, a convention Google has adhered to since, with each subsequent Android launch being named after a dessert – whose title began with the following letter of the alphabet.

Cupcake launched many UI enhancements together with a brand new auto-rotate choice, a brand new boot animation and animated display transitions.

On-screen keyboards with textual content prediction and a customized dictionary have been added to Android for the primary time supporting such telephones because the HTC Magic – releasing them from the majority of a bodily QWERTY keyboard. Still a major differentiator towards Apple, Google launched their AppWidget framework enabling homescreen widgets. While cameras have been allowed to stretch their legs even additional by having the ability to file video in each MPEG-Four and 3GP video codecs. Users might additionally copy and paste inside the net browser.

HTC Dream

HTC Dream • Android 1.5 widget

Other notable Android Cupcake options included:

  • Auto-pairing and stereo assist for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles)
  • User footage proven for Favorites in Contacts
  • Call log occasions now date/time stamped
  • One-touch entry to a contact card from name log occasions
  • Ability to add movies and photographs to YouTube and Picasa respectivly


Android 1.6 – Donut

Release date: September 15, 2009

Donut launched assist for WVGA display resolutions permitting Android to run on a wide range of units with totally different shows with various facet ratios – a marked enchancment from the fastened 320×480 supported up till now.

The voice and textual content entry Quick Search Box was enhanced to consolidate outcomes. Now together with outcomes from the net and developer apps along with the customers native content material. Improvements to the Android Market introduced looking, app screenshots and the highest free/paid apps classes.

The Gallery, digital camera, and camcorder turned higher built-in along with quicker digital camera entry.

Other notable Android Donut options included:

  • Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to permit any Android utility to « speak » a string of textual content
  • Batch picture deletion
  • Updated expertise assist for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine
  • Speed enhancements in looking and digital camera purposes
  • Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilder growth device


Android 2.0 – Eclair

Release date: October 26, 2009

Eclair additional optimized efficiency, got here with a revamped UI and supported extra display sizes and resolutions, whereas additionally bringing reside wallpapers. Google Maps Navigation turned a viable substitute for in-car navigation models with its flip by flip instructions, 3D view, voice steerage and visitors data.

Smartphones began to shut the hole on client digital cameras by supporting new digital camera options, together with flash, digital zoom, scene mode, white stability, coloration impact and macro focus.

Android 2.1 was a subsequent launch, which was dubbed Eclair, too, because it wasn’t a serious replace by way of performance solely introducing minor API modifications and bug fixes.

Along with Android 2.1 Eclair, Google launched its first Nexus units as nicely. Manufactured by HTC, however offered instantly by Google, the Google Nexus One was launched in January 2010, and in May 2010 it additionally turned the primary telephone to be up to date to Android 2.2 Froyo.

Other notable Android Eclair options included:

  • Multiple Account sync for e-mail and contacts
  • Microsoft Exchange e-mail assist, crucial for company adoption
  • Bluetooth 2.1
  • Quick Contact characteristic, displaying a pop-up for name, SMS and e-mail, as quickly as you faucet on a contact’s avatar
  • Ability to go looking all saved SMS and MMS messages
  • Improved typing velocity on digital keyboard, with smarter dictionary that learns your phrase utilization and consists of contact names as options
  • Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap zoom and assist for HTML5
  • Calendar agenda view enhanced, displaying attending standing for every invitee, and skill to ask new company to occasions
  • MotionEvent class enhanced to trace multi-touch occasions


Android 2.2 – Froyo

Release date: May 20, 2010

Speed, reminiscence, and efficiency optimizations have been the outstanding headline options for Froyo, delivered by the introduction of the Dalvik JIT compiler, delivering as much as 5X efficiency enhancements in CPU certain code. A 2-3X enchancment in Javascript was achieved by the adoption of the V8 Javascript engine inside the browser, along with Flash assist being added.

Voice Actions enabled much more management of your telephone together with your voice, together with search, getting instructions and including notes. Push notifications made their look for the primary time. A giant change in rendering high quality got here with the assist for high-PPI shows (as much as 320 ppi), reminiscent of four-inch 720p screens

Other notable Android Froyo featuresincluded;

  • Improved Microsoft Exchange assist
  • USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot performance
  • Updated Market utility with batch and computerized replace options
  • Quick switching between a number of keyboard languages/dictionaries
  • Support for Bluetooth automotive and desk docks
  • Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords
  • Animated GIF assist
  • Application set up on expandable reminiscence
  • Gallery permits customers to view image stacks utilizing a zoom gesture


Android 2.3 – Gingerbread

Release date: December 6, 2010

Further stretching its legs, Gingerbread delivered a greater person expertise by simplifying the UI and bettering efficiency even additional along with paving the best way for much more type components with assist for extra-large screens sizes and resolutions. A standout characteristic was longer battery life, achieved by higher administration of these apps that have been maintaining units awake for too lengthy.

Additional Gaming APIs led to a richer gaming expertise to Android by offering builders with decrease stage entry to audio, graphics, system controls, and storage capabilities.

Additional {hardware} capabilities have been unlocked by Near Field Communication (NFC) assist, a number of cameras now permitting native assist for front-facing cameras, and extra sensors (reminiscent of gyroscopes and barometers).

Fun Fact – Since Gingerbread, each model of Android has contained Easter eggs – check out the transient overview of these right here.

Other notable Android Gingerbread options included:

  • Native assist for SIP VoIP web telephony
  • Faster, extra intuitive textual content enter in digital keyboard, with improved accuracy, higher urged textual content and voice enter mode
  • Enhanced copy/paste performance, permitting you to pick out a phrase by press-hold, copy, and paste
  • New audio results reminiscent of reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass increase
  • New Download Manager, giving quick access to any file downloaded from the browser, e-mail, or one other utility
  • Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding
  • Support for voice or video chat utilizing Google Talk
  • Switched the default encryption for SSL from AES256-SHA to RC4-MD5
  • Improved Gmail utility
  • Camera software program enhancements
  • Improved battery effectivity


Android 3.0 – Honeycomb

Release date: February 22, 2011

OK, time to tackle Apple’s iPad. Honeycomb was an Android launch optimized and meant for tablets solely. With Google selecting the Motorola Xoom as its supermodel to greatest showcase its options.

Honeycomb offered an optimized UI for tablets with their bigger display real-estate. Reducing the requirement for bodily navigation buttons Honeycomb’s System Bar featured fast entry to notifications, standing, and tender navigation buttons, out there on the backside of the display.

The new Action Bar gave entry to contextual choices, navigation, widgets and different sorts of content material on the high of the display. Quick Settings was launched, bringing collectively date, time, battery and connection standing. All topped off by a simplified multitasking expertise.

Honeycomb additionally introduced {hardware} acceleration and assist for multi-core processors to the pill get together.

Subsequent Honeycomb releases, once more pill solely, would carry assist for exterior USB units together with keyboards and pointing units, resizable Home Screen widgets, assist for an enhanced vary of pill {hardware} and a compatibility show mode for these purposes not but optimized for pill display resolutions.

Other notable Android Honeycomb options included;

  • Redesigned keyboard
  • Simplified copy/paste interface
  • Multiple browser tabs, auto type auto-fill and new “incognito” mode
  • Quick entry to digital camera publicity, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing digital camera, time-lapse, and different digital camera options
  • New two pane UI for Contacts and Email
  • Ability to encrypt all person information
  • Support for joysticks and gamepads
  • Support for FLAC audio playback


Android 4.0 – Ice Cream Sandwich

Release date: October 18, 2011

Ice Cream Sandwich consolidated each Android 2.Three and Android 3.Zero right into a single unified launch with a {hardware} accelerated person interface that might assist each smartphones and tablets.

That made on-screen navigation buttons out there on smartphones for the primary time. Alongside the brand new Roboto font, widgets have been moved to a tab of their very own within the app drawer, whereas folder creation was enhanced with a extra pure drag-and-drop strategy.

Data Usage management inside settings allowed you to set warnings while you approached a sure utilization restrict, and disable information use when the edge is exceeded. Android Beam leveraged the supported NFC chips permitting the change of net bookmarks, contact data, instructions, YouTube movies and different information between NFC outfitted units.

Smartphone digital camera performance developed once more with the introduction of an improved digital camera utility providing zero shutter lag, time lapse and panorama modes, and the power to zoom whereas recording 1080p video recording for inventory Android units. A built-in picture editor allowed you to tweak your captured photographs.

Of explicit notice, Ice Cream Sandwich launched Face Unlock, a characteristic that allowed you to unlock your telephone utilizing facial recognition software program. Apple’s Face ID would achieve prominence six years later using each software program and {hardware} parts.

Other notable Android Ice Cream Sandwich options included:

  • Improved visible voicemail
  • Pinch-to-zoom performance within the calendar
  • Integrated screenshot seize
  • Application entry instantly from lock display
  • Automatic syncing of browser with customers’ Chrome bookmarks
  • New gallery format
  • Refreshed People utility with social community integration, standing updates and hi-res photographs
  • Wi-Fi Direct
  • Android VPN Framework (AVF), and TUN (however not TAP) kernel module.


Android 4.1 – Jelly Bean

Release date: July 9, 2012

Jelly Bean launched Project Butter with its sole goal to offer buttery easy efficiency and performance for the person interface. It achieved this by contact anticipation, a hard and fast body fee of 60 fps, Triple buffering within the graphics pipeline, CPU enter increase (do not ask) and synchronizing contact to vsync timing.

Google Now poked its head above the wall for the primary time, with its cell assistant offering at a look data primarily based in your location, date and time, schedule and appreciated topics.

Jelly Bean launched Actionable Notifications, with notifications increasing and permitting motion to be taken from inside them. You might additionally flip off notifications on an application-specific foundation.

Other notable Android Jelly Bean options included:

  • Enhanced accessibility
  • Shortcuts and widgets can mechanically be re-arranged or re-sized to permit new gadgets to suit on residence screens
  • Bluetooth assist for Android Beam, complimention NFC
  • Improved digital camera utility, adopted later by a reworked digital camera UI, beforehand launched on Google Play version telephones
  • Tablets with smaller screens gained an expanded model of the interface format and residential display utilized by telephones
  • Multiple person accounts (tablets solely)
  • New clock utility with built-in world clock, cease watch and timer
  • Group Messaging
  • 4K decision assist


Android 4.4 – KitKat (endorsed by Nestle)

Release date: October 31, 2013

The air was full of peeps talking or shouting « OK Google » to carry out searches, ship texts, get instructions or play music.

Android’s person interface was enhanced to assist an immersive design strategy. A customers content material was put entrance and heart as purposes might both disguise or make translucent the navigation and standing bars.

Improved caller ID was additionally part of that launch. Receiving a name from a telephone quantity not in your contacts, confirmed matches from companies with an area itemizing on Google Maps.

Under the hood, Android Runtime (ART) was launched as a brand new experimental utility runtime surroundings(not enabled by default), as a substitute for the Dalvik digital machine.

Later in KitKat’s lifecycle, a model of KitKat for Android Wear units was launched, enabled by the addition of wearable extensions.

Other notable Android KitKat options included:

  • Optimizations for efficiency on units with decrease specs
  • Wireless printing functionality
  • Sensor batching, step detector and counter APIs


Android 5.0 – Lollipop

Release date: November 12, 2014

As against earlier incremental design updates, Lollipop launched a system-wide new look name Material Design, including shadows and movement whereas bettering navigation. Notifications moved to the lock display.

Songs, photographs, apps, and up to date searches from one Android system might be instantly picked up throughout all your Android units seamlessly.

Under the hood, Android Runtime (ART) with ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation, changed Dalvik. With Lollipop, Android turned out there on TVs and in our automobiles for the primary time.

Other notable Android Lollipop options included:

  • Support for 64-bit CPUs
  • Recent actions display with duties as a substitute of purposes
  • Print previews
  • Refreshed lock display, not supporting widgets
  • Refreshed notification tray and fast settings pull-down
  • Project Volta, for battery life enhancements
  • Search inside the system settings
  • Guest logins and a number of person accounts can be found on extra units, reminiscent of telephones
  • Tap and Go permits customers to rapidly migrate to a brand new Android system, utilizing NFC and Bluetooth
  • A flashlight-style utility is included, engaged on supported units with a digital camera flash
  • Smart lock characteristic
  • Updated emoji
  • Official assist for a number of SIM playing cards
  • High-definition voice calls, out there between appropriate 4G LTE units operating Android 5.1
  • Native WiFi calling assist


Android 6.0 – Marshmallow

Release date: October 5, 2015

Now On Tap, activated by urgent and holding the house button introduced the power to entry Google Now’s playing cards. Granular permissions permitting you to outline what you need to share and when with the power to show permissions off at any time, too.

Doze mode, which reduces CPU velocity when the display is off, mixed with App Standby have been launched to stretch out battery life even additional. While safety was enhanced with the introduction of native fingerprint assist.

Other notable Android Marshmallow options included:

  • Contextual search from key phrases inside apps
  • Alphabetically accessible vertical utility drawer
  • Application search bar and favorites
  • Renamed Priority mode to Do Not Disturb mode
  • Larger Application folders with a number of pages
  • USB-C assist
  • 4K show mode for apps
  • Experimental multi-window characteristic
  • Descriptions for USB connection choices
  • Double-tap energy button to open digital camera


Android 7.0 – Nougat

Release date: August 22, 2016

What time is it? Emoji time! Nougat put emoji’s entrance and heart. A pattern, whether or not we prefer it or not continues, with 1500 emojis together with 72 new ones whereas including totally different pores and skin and haircut to current ones.

Click on the picture under to learn our Android Nougat Review.

GSMArena Android Nougat Review

Continued person interface enhancements enable the switching between apps with a double faucet, and the power to run two apps aspect by aspect. While the brand new Vulkan API offers optimized 3D graphics for video games and different purposes, reminiscent of Daydream digital actuality platform (VR interface) launched with Nougat.

Other notable Android Nougat options included:

  • Ability to display zoom
  • Added Emergency data half
  • Improvements to file browser
  • More Quick Settings choices
  • Picture-in-picture assist for Android TV
  • Battery utilization alerts


Android 8.0 – Oreo

Release date: August 21, 2017

Oreo launched additional polish to the person interface by providing, Picture-in-picture assist, Notification Dots that may be pressed rapidly see what’s new, and simply clear them by swiping away. Android Instant Apps permits entry to new apps proper from the browser, no set up wanted.

While Toast messages are actually white with the identical current transparency (We did not know this however Toast messages are the small pop-ups you see all through Android, for instance, clicking Send on an e-mail triggers a « Sending message… » toast).

Click on the picture under to learn our Android Oreo Review:

GSMArena Android Oreo Review

Support for Unicode 10.Zero emoji (5.0) and substitute of all blob-shaped emojis by spherical ones with gradient and description was added. Further highlighting the fixation with emojis, Oreo amended the Hamburger emoji to maneuver the place of the cheese slice!

Under the hood, Oreo permits Project Treble, the largest change to the foundations of Android so far: a modular structure that makes it simpler and quicker for {hardware} makers to ship Android updates. While boot occasions have been improved 2x.

Other notable Android Oreo options included;

  • Redesigned Quick Settings and Settings, with restructured Settings
  • Multi-display assist
  • System-wide Autofill framework
  • Google Play Protect
  • Downloadable fonts
  • Wi-Fi Assistant
  • Bluetooth battery stage for linked units
  • Android Oreo Go Edition, an non-obligatory light-weight model of Android for units with lower than 1 GB of RAM
  • Navigation buttons dim when not in use
  • Visual modifications to ‘Power Off’ and ‘Restart’ together with a brand new display and floating toolbar
  • Automatic mild and darkish themes


Android 9.0 – Android P title TBC, Parfait anybody?

Release date: Beta 1 launched May 8, 2018

Phew – nicely executed on making it this far. Android P is the present Android public beta launch and with it comes native assist for the present tendencies show cut-outs and naturally gestures.

Kick again and watch our hands-on overview under:

Other notable Android P options embody;

  • New person interface for the short settings menu
  • The clock has moved to the left of the notification bar
  • The dock now has a semi-transparent background
  • A screenshot button has been added to the facility choices
  • A brand new Lockdown mode which disables biometric authentication as soon as activated
  • Rounded corners throughout the UI
  • New transitions for switching between apps, or actions inside apps
  • Redesigned quantity slider
  • Richer messaging notifications
  • Battery proportion now proven in Always-On Display
  • Experimental options (that are presently hidden inside a menu known as Feature Flags) reminiscent of a redesigned About Phone web page in settings, and computerized Bluetooth enabling whereas driving


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Jean Ricks


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